Course Development Resources

Our course development resources are designed to aid faculty as they prepare to teach Difference, Power, and Discrimination courses. The academic literature included in this section explores a broad range of discipline-/field-specific course development resources. Please contact us if you have a resource you'd like to see added to the list.

Curriculum Transformation

Branche, J., Mullennix, J., & Cohn, E. R. (Eds.). (2007). Diversity Across the Curriculum: A Guide for Faculty in Higher Education. Wiley.
Fuentes, M. A., Zelaya, D. G., & Madsen, J. W. (2021). Rethinking the Course Syllabus: Considerations for Promoting Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion. Teaching of Psychology, 48(1), 69–79.
Osei-Kofi, N., Boovy, B., & Furman, K. (Eds.). (2022). Transformative approaches to social justice education: Equity and access in the college classrooms. Routledge.
Xing, J., Li, J., Roper, L., & Shaw, S. M. (Eds.). (2007). Teaching for change: The difference, power, and discrimination model. Lexington Books.

Agriculture and Forestry

Beaudoin, J.-M. (2012). Aboriginal economic development of forest resources: How can we think outside the wood box. Forestry Chronicle, 88(5), 571–577.
Bernard-Carreño, R. (2016). Engaged Advocacy and Learning to Represent the Self: Positioning People of Color in Our Contemporary Food Movement. Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development, 5(4), 189–193.
Black Environmental Thought Conference. (2010). Land and power: Sustainable agriculture and African Americans : a collection of essays from the 2007 Black Environmental Thought Conference.
Brandth, B. (Norwegian U. of S. and T., & Haugen, M. S. (1998). Breaking into a masculine discourse: Women and farm forestry. Sociologia Ruralis, 38(3), 427–442.
Chinn, P. W. U. (2015). Place and culture-based professional development: Cross-hybrid learning and the construction of ecological mindfulness. Cultural Studies of Science Education, 10(1), 121–134.
Coutinho-Sledge, P. (2015). Feminized Forestry: The Promises and Pitfalls of Change in a Masculine Organization. Gender, Work, and Organization, 22(4), 375–389.
Duncan Hilchey. (2016). In This Issue: Race and Ethnicity in Food Systems Work. Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development, 5(4).
Freeman, J. (2018). LGBTQ scientists are still left out. Nature (London), 559(7712), 27–28.
LaVergne, D., Jones, W. A., Larke, A., & Elbert, C. D. (2012). Identifying Strategies for Diversity Inclusive Agricultural Education Programs. NACTA Journal, 56(2), 47–54.
Leslie, I. S. (2017). Queer Farmers: Sexuality and the Transition to Sustainable Agriculture: Queer Farmers. Rural Sociology, 82(4), 747–771.
Ozorak, E. W. (2013). “We All Have to Eat”: Experiential Learning in Courses on Food and Hunger. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 41(2), 97–104.
Passidomo, C. (2014). Whose right to (farm) the city? Race and food justice activism in post-Katrina New Orleans. Agriculture and Human Values, 31(3), 385–396.
Sbicca, J. (2012). Growing food justice by planting an anti-oppression foundation: Opportunities and obstacles for a budding social movement. Agriculture and Human Values, 29(4), 455–466.
Schelhas, J., Hitchner, S., & Dwivedi, P. (2018). Strategies for Successful Engagement of African American Landowners in Forestry. Journal of Forestry, 116(6), 581–588.
Webster, N., & Hoover, T. (2006). IMPACT OF AN URBAN SERVICE LEARNING EXPERIENCE ON AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION STUDENTS. Journal of Agricultural Education, 47(4), 91–101.
Woods, M. D. (2004). Cultivating cultural competence in agricultural education through community-based service-learning. Journal of Agricultural Education, 45(1), 10–29.


Briguglio, C. (2007). Educating the Business Graduate of the 21st Century: Communication for a Globalized World. International Journal of Teaching & Learning in Higher Education, 19(1), 8–20.
Donne, V., & Hansen, M. A. (2013). Business and Technology Educators: Practices for Inclusion. International Journal of Information and Communication Technology Education, 9(4), 81–93.
Elias, J., & Beasley, C. (2009). Hegemonic Masculinity and Globalization: “Transnational Business Masculinities” and Beyond. Globalizations, 6(2), 281–296.
Feagin, J. R., & Imani, N. (1994). Racial Barriers to African American Entrepreneurship: An Exploratory Study. Social Problems (Berkeley, Calif.), 41(4), 562–584.
Fotaki, M., & Prasad, A. (2014). Social justice interrupted? Values, pedagogy, and purpose of business school academics. Management Learning, 45(1), 103–106.
Hanlon, R. J., & Frost, S. (2013). Teaching Corporate Social Responsibility, Human Rights and Corruption: A Survey of 343 Faculty at the Top 20 Business Schools in the Financial Times Global MBA Rankings. Journal of Business Ethics Education, 10, 5–46.
Leasher, M. K., & Miller, C. E. (2012). Discrimination across the Sectors: A Comparison of Discrimination Trends in Private and Public Organizations. Public Personnel Management, 41(2), 281–326.
Petocz, P., Reid, A., & Taylor, P. (2009). Thinking Outside the Square: Business Students’ Conceptions of Creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 21(4), 409–416.
Simpson, R. (2006). Masculinity and Management Education: Feminizing the MBA. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 5(2), 182–193.
Toubiana, M. (2014). Business pedagogy for social justice? An exploratory investigation of business faculty perspectives of social justice in business education. Management Learning, 45(1), 81–102.
Tuleja, E. A. (2014). Developing Cultural Intelligence for Global Leadership Through Mindfulness. Journal of Teaching in International Business, 25(1), 5–24.
Wang, J. (2013). Moving towards Ethnorelativism: A Framework for Measuring and Meeting Students’ Needs in Cross-Cultural Business and Technical Communication. Journal of Technical Writing and Communication, 43(2), 201–218.


Allan, J. (2010). The inclusive teacher educator: Spaces for civic engagement. Discourse (Abingdon, England), 31(4), 411–422.
Applebaum, B. (2003). Social Justice, Democratic Education and the Silencing of Words that Wound. Journal of Moral Education, 32(2), 151–162.
Baily, S., & Katradis, M. (2016). “Pretty Much Fear!!” Rationalizing Teacher (Dis)Engagement in Social Justice Education. Equity & Excellence in Education, 49(2), 215–227.
Bentley-Williams, R., & Morgan, J. (2013). Inclusive education: Pre-service teachers’ reflexive learning on diversity and their challenging role. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 41(2), 173–185.
Booth, T. (2011). The name of the rose: Inclusive values into action in teacher education. Prospects (Paris), 41(3), 303–318.
Flintoff, A., Dowling, F., & Fitzgerald, H. (2015). Working through whiteness, race and (anti) racism in physical education teacher education. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 20(5), 559–570.
Gorski, P. C. (2009). Cognitive dissonance as a strategy in social justice teaching. Multicultural Education, 17(1), 54.
Hill-Jackson, V. (2007). Wrestling Whiteness: Three Stages of Shifting Multicultural Perspectives among White Pre-service Teachers. Multicultural Perspectives (Mahwah, N.J.), 9(2), 29–35.
Keesing-Styles, L. (2006). Education for Social Justice in an Uncertain World. International Journal of Learning, 13(2), 95–102.
Lensmire, T. J., McManimon, S. K., Tierney, J. D., Lee-Nichols, M. E., Casey, Z. A., Lensmire, A., & Davis, B. M. (2013). McIntosh as Synecdoche: How Teacher Education’s Focus on White Privilege Undermines Antiracism. Harvard Educational Review, 83(3), 410–431.
McDonald, M. A. (2008). The Pedagogy of Assignments in Social Justice Teacher Education. Equity & Excellence in Education, 41(2), 151–167.
Pearce, S. (2012). Confronting dominant whiteness in the primary classroom: Progressive student teachers’ dilemmas and constraints. Oxford Review of Education, 38(4), 455–472.
Schmidt, S. J., Chang, S., Carolan-Silva, A., Lockhart, J., & Anagnostopoulos, D. (2012). Recognition, responsibility, and risk: Pre-service teachers’ framing and reframing of lesbian, gay, and bisexual social justice issues. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(8), 1175–1184.
Walgenbach, K., & Reher, F. (2016). Reflecting on privileges: Defensive strategies of privileged individuals in anti-oppressive education. The Review of Education/Pedagogy/Cultural Studies, 38(2), 189–210.
Whitehead, K. (2007). Addressing Social Difference with Prospective Teachers Who Want “To Make a Difference.” Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 35(4), 367–385.

Liberal Arts

Barraclough, L., & McMahon, M. R. (2013). U.S.-Mexico Border Studies Online Collaboration: Transformative Learning Across Power and Privilege. Equity & Excellence in Education, 46(2), 236–251.
Daly, W. T. (1992). The Academy, the Economy, and the Liberal Arts. Academe, 78(4), 10–12.
Dodge, A. M., & Crutcher, P. A. (2015). Inclusive Classrooms for LGBTQ Students: USING LINKED TEXT SETS TO CHALLENGE THE HEGEMONIC “SINGLE STORY.” Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 59(1), 95–105.
Gould, R. (2012). Philology, Education, Democracy. The Journal of Aesthetic Education, 46(4), 57–69.
Harootunian, H. (2012). “Memories of Underdevelopment” after Area Studies. Positions : East Asia Cultures Critique, 20(1), 7–35.
Levine, D. N. (2006). Powers of the mind the reinvention of liberal learning in America. University of Chicago Press.
RICHARDSON, T. (2011). Navigating the Problem of Inclusion as Enclosure in Native Culture-Based Education: Theorizing Shadow Curriculum. Curriculum Inquiry, 41(3), 332–349.
Schnell, J., & Dates, J. (1996). Promoting a more inclusive communication curriculum using inter-university faculty collaboration as a model. The Communication Review (Yverdon, Switzerland), 1(3), 403–409.
Seifert, T. A., Goodman, K. M., Lindsay, N., Jorgensen, J. D., Wolniak, G. C., Pascarella, E. T., & Blaich, C. (2008). The Effects of Liberal Arts Experiences on Liberal Arts Outcomes. Research in Higher Education, 49(2), 107–125.
Woyshner, C. (2002). Political History as Women’s History: Toward a More Inclusive Curriculum. Theory and Research in Social Education, 30(3), 354–380.


Caballero, J., Wolowich, W. R., Benavides, S., & Marino, J. (2014). Difficulty and discrimination indices of multiple-choice examination items in a college of pharmacy therapeutics and pathophysiology course sequence. The International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 22(1), 76–83.
Cooper, L.-A., Vellurattil, R. P., & Quiñones-Boex, A. (2014). Pharmacy Students’ Perceptions of Cultural Competence Encounters During Practice Experiences. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 78(2), 31–31.
Echeverri, M., Brookover, C., & Kennedy, K. (2011). Factor analysis of a modified version of the California Brief Multicultural Competence Scale with minority pharmacy students. Advances in Health Sciences Education : Theory and Practice, 16(5), 609–626.
Leach, C., & Layson-Wolf, C. (2016). Survey of community pharmacy residents’ perceptions of transgender health management. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, 56(4), 441-445.e6.
Maxwell, E., Salch, S., Boliko, M., & Anakwe-Charles, G. (2017). Discrepancies in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Patient Care and How Pharmacists Can Support an Evolved Practice. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 81(7), 6181–6181.
Okoro, O. N., Odedina, F. T., Reams, R. R., & Smith, W. T. (2012). Clinical Cultural Competency and Knowledge of Health Disparities Among Pharmacy Students. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 76(3), 40–40.
Vyas, D., & Caligiuri, F. J. (2010). Reinforcing Cultural Competency Concepts During Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experiences. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 74(7), 129–129.
White, C., Louis, B., Persky, A., Howell, D. T., Griffin, L. M., Simmons-Yon, A., & Scolaro, K. L. (2013). Institutional Strategies to Achieve Diversity and Inclusion in Pharmacy Education. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 77(5), 97–97.
Yanchick, V. A., Baldwin, J. N., Bootman, J. L., Carter, R. A., Crabtree, B. L., & Maine, L. L. (2014). Report of the 2013-2014 Argus Commission: Diversity and Inclusion in Pharmacy Education. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 78(10), S21–S21.


Antony, L. (2012). Different Voices or Perfect Storm: Why Are There So Few Women in Philosophy? Journal of Social Philosophy, 43(3), 227–255.
Burke, T. B. (2007). Seeing Philosophy: Deaf Students and Deaf Philosophers. Teaching Philosophy, 30(4), 443–451.
Harris, L. (1995). The Status of Blacks in Academic Philosophy. The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 6.
HASLANGER, S. (2008). Changing the Ideology and Culture of Philosophy: Not by Reason (Alone). Hypatia, 23(2), 210–223.
Hill Collins, P. (2009). Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment ([2nd edition].). Routledge.
Johnson, A. (2011). Orion Magazine - How to Queer Ecology: One Goose at a Time. Orion Magazine.
Melton, D. H. (2013). Are You My People? The Surprising Places This Black Woman Philosopher Did Not Find Community. The Black Scholar, 43(4), 80–80.
Montmarquet, J. A., & Hardy, W. H. (2000). Reflections: An anthology of African American philosophy. Wadsworth Thompson Learning.
Norlock, K. J. (2012). Gender Perception as a Habit of Moral Perception: Implications for Philosophical Methodology and Introductory Curriculum. Journal of Social Philosophy, 43(3), 347–362.
PHAMOTSE, M., & KISSACK, M. (2008). The Role of the Humanities in the Modern University: Some Historical and Philosophical Considerations. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 42(1), 49–65.
Zack, N. (2000). Women of color and philosophy: A critical reader. Blackwell Publishers.

Public Health

Cushman, L. F., Delva, M., Franks, C. L., Jimenez-Bautista, A., Moon-Howard, J., Glover, J., & Begg, M. D. (2015). Cultural competency training for public health students: Integrating self, social, and global awareness into a master of public health curriculum. American Journal of Public Health (1971), 105 Suppl 1(S1), S132–S140.
Doutrich, D., & Storey, M. (2004). Education and Practice: Dynamic Partners for Improving Cultural Competence in Public Health. Family & Community Health, 27(4), 298–307.
Hadland, S. E., Yehia, B. R., & Makadon, H. J. (2016). CARING FOR LGBTQ YOUTH IN INCLUSIVE AND AFFIRMATIVE ENVIRONMENTS. The Pediatric Clinics of North America, 63(6), 955–969.
Housman, J., Meaney, K. S., Wilcox, M., & Cavazos, A. (2012). The Impact of Service-Learning on Health Education Students’ Cultural Competence. American Journal of Health Education, 43(5), 269–278.
JACQUEZ, F., & GHANTOUS, S. (2013). Community-Partnered Needs Assessment: A Strategy to Teach College Students About Health Disparities: Experiential Teaching Practices in Undergraduate Community Psychology. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 41(2), 68–74.
Jagsi, R. (2018). Sexual Harassment in Medicine—#MeToo. The New England Journal of Medicine, 378(3), 209–211.
Krainovich-Miller, B., Yost, J. M., Norman, R. G., Auerhahn, C., Dobal, M., Rosedale, M., Lowry, M., & Moffa, C. (2008). Measuring Cultural Awareness of Nursing Students: A First Step Toward Cultural Competency. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 19(3), 250–258.
Lee, A., & Kanji, Z. (2017). Queering the health care system: Experiences of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender community. Canadian Journal of Dental Hygiene, 51(2), 80-.
Marshall, L. L., & Ashworth, L. E. (2010). An Elective Course in Women’s Health. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 74(1), 12–12.
Plaza, C., Mathews, J., & Hanneman, T. (2015). The Role of Pharmacists in LGBTQ Health. Pharmacy Faculty/ Staff Publications.
Starr, S., & Wallace, D. C. (2009). Self-Reported Cultural Competence of Public Health Nurses in a Southeastern U.S. Public Health Department. Public Health Nursing (Boston, Mass.), 26(1), 48–57.
Taboada, A. (2011). Privilege, Power, and Public Health Programs: A Student Perspective on Deconstructing Institutional Racism in Community Service Learning. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 17(4), 376–380.
Vela, M. B., Kim, K. E., Tang, H., & Chin, M. H. (2008). Innovative Health Care Disparities Curriculum for Incoming Medical Students. Journal of General Internal Medicine : JGIM, 23(7), 1028–1032.
Ziegahn, L., & Ton, H. (2011). Adult educators and cultural competence within health care systems: Change at the individual and structural levels. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 2011(130), 55–64.

Science Technology Engineering and Math

Banks, J. A. (2006). Cultural diversity and education: Foundations, curriculum, and teaching (5th ed.). Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.
Battles, D., Reichard, J., Fredrick, J., & Franks, M. (2001). Environmental literacy for all students: Assessment of environmental science courses in a new core curriculum. Abstracts with Programs - Geological Society of America, 33(6), 242.
Bennett, J. E., & Sekaquaptewa, D. (2014). Setting an egalitarian social norm in the classroom: Improving attitudes towards diversity among male engineering students. Social Psychology of Education, 17(2), 343–355.
Chang, M. J., Sharkness, J., Hurtado, S., & Newman, C. B. (2014). What matters in college for retaining aspiring scientists and engineers from underrepresented racial groups. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 51(5), 555–580.
Espinosa, L. L. (2011). Pipelines and Pathways: Women of Color in Undergraduate STEM Majors and the College Experiences That Contribute to Persistence. Harvard Educational Review, 81(2), 209–241.
George, Y. S., Neale, D. S., Van Horne, V., & Malcom, S. M. (2001). In pursuit of a diverse science, technology, engineering and mathematics workforce: Recommended research priorities to enhance participation by underrepresented minorities. American Association for the Advancement of Science.
GROUP, T. B. A. G. S. (1988). The Importance of Feminist Critique for Contemporary Cell Biology. Hypatia, 3(1), 61–76.
Gurung, R. A. R. (2009). Getting Culture: Incorporating Diversity Across the Curriculum. Taylor & Francis Group.
Johnson, D. R. (2011). Women of color in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). New Directions for Institutional Research, 2011(152), 75–85.
Joyner, F. F., Mann, D. T., & Harris, T. (2012). Engineering As A Social Activity: Preparing Engineers To Thrive In The Changing World Of Work. American Journal of Engineering Education, 3(1), 67–82.
Leggon, C. B. (2006). Women in Science: Racial and Ethnic Differences and the Differences They Make. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 31(3), 325–333.
Mills, J., & Ayre, M. (2003). Implementing an Inclusive Curriculum for Women in Engineering Education. Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice, 129(4), 203–210.
O’Neil, C. (2016). Weapons of math destruction: How big data increases inequality and threatens democracy (First edition.). Crown.
Rosser, S. V. (1993). FEMALE FRIENDLY SCIENCE: INCLUDING WOMEN IN CURRICULAR CONTENT AND PEDAGOGY IN SCIENCE. The Journal of General Education (University Park, Pa.), 42(3), 191–220.
Settles, I. H., O’Connor, R. C., & Yap, S. C. Y. (2016a). Climate Perceptions and Identity Interference Among Undergraduate Women in STEM: The Protective Role of Gender Identity. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 40(4), 488–503.
Settles, I. H., O’Connor, R. C., & Yap, S. C. Y. (2016b). Climate Perceptions and Identity Interference Among Undergraduate Women in STEM: The Protective Role of Gender Identity. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 40(4), 488–503.
Spanier, B., Educational Resources Information Center, & Muzino, J. N. (1997). Balancing the Curriculum in the Biological Sciences. In Biology: CUNY panel: Rethinking the disciplines (pp. 43–55). National Center for Curriculum Transformation Resources on Women.
Strayhorn, T. L. (2010). Undergraduate research participation and STEM graduate degree aspirations among students of color. New Directions for Institutional Research, 2010(148), 85–93.
Voltz, D. L., Sims, M. J., Nelson, B., & Bivens, C. (2008). Engineering Successful Inclusion in Standards-Based Urban Classrooms. Middle School Journal, 39(5), 24–30.

Social Sciences

Bair, S. (2015). Inclusive Historical Narratives: Lessons from Mary Ritter Beard and Carter G. Woodson. Social Studies Research & Practice, 10(2), 124–134.
Boysen, G. A. (2011). Diversity Topics Covered in Teaching of Psychology Courses. Teaching of Psychology, 38(2), 89–93.
Case, K. A., Stewart, B., & Tittsworth, J. (2009). Transgender across the Curriculum: A Psychology for Inclusion. Teaching of Psychology, 36(2), 117–121.
Cochran, B. N., & Robohm, J. S. (2015). Integrating LGBT Competencies into the Multicultural Curriculum of Graduate Psychology Training Programs: Expounding and Expanding Upon Hope and Chappell’s Choice Points: Commentary on “Extending Training in Multicultural Competencies to Include Individuals Identifying as Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual: Key Choice Points for Clinical Psychology Training Programs.” Clinical Psychology (New York, N.Y.), 22(2), 119–126.
Dennick-Brecht, M. K. (1993). Developing a More Inclusive Sociology Curriculum: Racial and Ethnic Group Coverage in Thirty Introductory Textbooks. Teaching Sociology, 21(2), 166–171.
Harris, J. B., Hill, B., & Kiernan, M. (2012). A Model for Increasing Indigenous Participation in Psychology Degrees. Australian Psychologist, 47(3), 128–136.
Hedley, M., & Markowitz, L. (2001). Avoiding Moral Dichotomies: Teaching Controversial Topics to Resistant Students. Teaching Sociology, 29(2), 195–208.
Littleford, L. N. (2013). Diversity in the Undergraduate Curriculum: Perspectives Held by Undergraduate Students at a Predominantly European American University. Teaching of Psychology, 40(2), 111–117.
Moradi, B., & Yoder, J. D. (2001). Demonstrating Social Constructionism in Psychology Courses: The “Who Am I?” Exercise. Teaching of Psychology, 28(3), 201–203.
Peterson, S. B., & Kroner, T. (1992). GENDER BIASES IN TEXTBOOKS FOR INTRODUCTORY PSYCHOLOGY AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 16(1), 17–36.
Pettijohn, T. F., & Walzer, A. S. (2008). Reducing Racism, Sexism, and Homophobia in College Students by Completing a Psychology of Prejudice Course. College Student Journal, 42(2), 459-.
Rios, D., Stewart, A. J., & Winter, D. G. (2010). “Thinking She Could be the Next President”: Why Identifying with the Curriculum Matters. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 34(3), 328–338.